Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya
Part No. 2
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Paragraph: 2 

Verse: 1    atʰa śabdotpattiḥ //
Now for the origin of sound.

Verse: 2    
vāyuśarīrasamīraṇātkaṇṭhorasoḥ saṃdʰāne //
By the setting in motion of air by the body, at the junction of throat and breast.

Verse: 3    
tasya prātiśrutkāni bʰavantyuraḥ kaṇṭhaḥ śiro mukʰaṃ nāsike iti //
The parts which give it audible quality are breast, throat, head, mouth, and nostrils.

Verse: 4    
saṃvr̥te kaṇṭhe nādaḥ kriyate //
When the throat is closed, tone is produced.

Verse: 5    
vivr̥te śvāsaḥ //
When it is opened, breath is produced.

Verse: 6    
madʰye hakāraḥ //
When in an intermediate condition, the h-sound is produced.

Verse: 7    
varṇaprakr̥tayaḥ //
Those are the materials of alphabetic sounds.

Verse: 8    
nādo 'nupradanam̐ svaragʰoṣavatsu //
In vowels and sonant consonants, the emission is sound.

Verse: 9    
hakāro hacaturtʰeṣu //
In h and in sonant aspirate mutes, it is h-sound.

Verse: 10    
agʰoṣeṣu śvāsaḥ //
In surd consonants, it is breath.

Verse: 11    
bʰūyānpratʰamebʰyo 'nyeṣu //
And more of it in the other surd letters than in the simple surd mutes.

Verse: 12    
avarṇe nātyupasam̐hr̥tamoṣṭhahanu nātivyastam //
In forming the a-vowels, the lips and jaws must not be too nealy approximated, nor too widely separated.

Verse: 13    
okāre ca //
Also in uttering o.

Verse: 14    
oṣṭhau tūpasam̐hr̥tatarau //
But the lips are more nearly approximated.

Verse: 15    
īṣatprakr̥ṣṭāvekāre //
In utterin e, they are slightly protracted.

Verse: 16    
upasam̐hr̥tatare hanū //
The jaws more nealy approached.

Verse: 17    
jihvāmadʰyāntābʰyāṃ cottarāñjambʰyāntsparśayati //
And one touches the borders of the upper back jaws with the edges of the middle of the tongue.

Verse: 18    
upasam̐hr̥tatare ca jihvāgramr̥kārarkāralkāreṣu barsveṣūpasam̐harati //
The jaws, also, are more closely approximated, and the tip of the tongue is brought into close proximity to the upper back gums, in , r̥̄, and .

Verse: 19    
ekeṣāmanusvārasvarabʰaktyośca //
As also, according to some, in anusvāra and svarabhakti.

Verse: 20    
anādeśe praṇyastā jihvā //
In the absence of special direction, the tongue is thrust down forward.

Verse: 21    
akāravadoṣṭhau //
The lips are as in the utterance of a.

Verse: 22    
tālau jihvāmadʰyamivarṇe //
In the i-vowels, the middle of the tongue is to be approximated to the palate.

Verse: 23    
ekāre ca //
Also in e.

Verse: 24    
oṣṭhopasam̐hāra uvarṇe //
In the u-vowels, there is approximation of the lips.

Verse: 25    
ekāntarastu sarvatra prakr̥tāt //
But, in all cases, with an interval of one from the preceding.

Verse: 26    
akārārdʰamaikāraukārayorādiḥ //
The beginning of ai and au is half an a.

Verse: 27    
saṃvr̥takaraṇataramekeṣām //
Which, in the opinion of some, is uttered with the organs more closed.

Verse: 28    
ikāro 'dʰyardʰaḥ pūrvasya śeṣaḥ //
Of the former, the rest is one and a half times i.

Verse: 29    
ukārastūttarasya //
But, of the latter, u.

Verse: 30    
anusvārottamā anunāsikāḥ //
anusvāra and the last mutes are nasal.

Verse: 31    
svarāṇā yatropasam̐hārastatstʰānam //
In the case of the vowels, that is their place of production, to which approximation is made.

Verse: 32    
yadupasam̐harati tatkaraṇam //
That is producing organ, which makes the approsximation.

Verse: 33    
anyeṣāṃ tu yatra sparśanaṃ tatstʰānam //
But in the case of the other letters, that is place of production, where contact is made.

Verse: 34    
yena sparśayati tatkaraṇam //
That is producing organ, whereby one makes the contact.

Verse: 35    
hanūmūle jihvāmūlena kavarge sparśayati //
In the k-series, one makes contact with the root of the tongue at the root of the jaws.

Verse: 36    
tālau jihvāmadʰyena cavarge //
In the c-series, with the middle of the tongue, upon the palate.

Verse: 37    
jihvāgreṇa prativeṣṭya mūrdʰani ṭavarge //
In the ṭ-series, with the tip to the tongue, rolled back, in the head.

Verse: 38    
jihvāgreṇa tavarge dantamūleṣu //
In the t-series, with te tip of the tongue, at the roots of the teeth.

Verse: 39    
oṣṭhābʰyāṃ pavarge //
In the p-series, with the two lips.

Verse: 40    
tālau jihvāmadʰyāntābʰyāṃ yakāre //
In y, with the two edges of the middle of the tongue, upon the palate.

Verse: 41    
repʰe jihvāgramadʰyena pratyagdantamūlebʰyaḥ //
In r, with the middle of the tip of the tongue, back of the roots of the teeth.

Verse: 42    
dantamūleṣu ca lakāre //
Also in l, at the roots of the teeth.

Verse: 43    
oṣṭhāntābʰyāṃ dantairvakāre //
In v, with the edges of the lips, along with the teeth.

Verse: 44    
sparśastʰāneṣūṣmāṇa ānupūrvyeṇa //
The spirants, in their order, are produced in the places of the mutes.

Verse: 45    
karaṇamadʰyaṃ tu vivr̥tam //
But the middle of the producing organ is unclosed.

Verse: 46    
kaṇṭhastʰānau hakāravisarjanīyau //
The throat is place of production of h and visarjanīya.

Verse: 47    
udayasvarādisastʰāno hakāraṃ ekeṣām //
In the opinion of some authorities, h has the same position as the begiining of the following vowel.

Verse: 48    
pūrvāntasastʰāno visarjanīyaḥ //
visarjanīya has the same position as the end of the preceding vowel.

Verse: 49    
nāsikyā nāsikāstʰānāḥ //
The nose-sounds have the nose as their place of production.

Verse: 50    
mukʰanāsikyā //
Or they are produced by the mouth and nose.

Verse: 51    
vargavaccaiṣu //
And, in them, the organ of production is as in the series of mutes.

Verse: 52    
nāsikāvivaraṇādānunāsikyaṃnāsikāvivaraṇādānunāsikyam //
Nasal quality is given by the unclosing of the nose.

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This text is part of the TITUS edition of Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya.

Copyright TITUS Project, Frankfurt a/M, 25.7.2010. No parts of this document may be republished in any form without prior permission by the copyright holder.