Dies ist eine Internet-Sonderausgabe des Aufsatzes
„Old Armenian and Caucasian Calendar Systems [III]:
The Albanian Month Names“
von Jost Gippert (1987).
Sie sollte nicht zitiert werden. Zitate sind der Originalausgabe in
„Annual of Armenian Linguistics“ 9, 1988, 35-46
zu entnehmen.

This is a special internet edition of the article
„Old Armenian and Caucasian Calendar Systems [III]:
The Albanian Month Names“
by Jost Gippert (1987).
It should not be quoted as such. For quotations, please refer to the original edition in
„Annual of Armenian Linguistics“ 9, 1988, 35-46.

Alle Rechte vorbehalten / All rights reserved:
Jost Gippert, Frankfurt 1999-2001

1.          "Extrait du manuscrit arménien n° 114 de la Bibliothèque royale", in: Journal asiatique, Sér. 2,10 = 21, 1832, p.526 sqq. [back / zurück]

2.          Cf., among others, the following treatises: P`. Ingoroq`va, "Jvel-kartuli c`armartuli k`alendari 2", in: Sakartvelos muzeumis moambe 7, 1931-32, p.300 sqq.; Ed. Agayan, "Ałvanic` amsanunnerə", in: Tełekagir Haykakan SSR Gitut`yunneri Akademiayi 5, 1946, p.61 sqq.; A. Šanidze, "Jazyk i pis'mo kavkazskix albancev", in: Vestnik otdelenija obščestvennyx nauk AN Gruzinskoj SSR 1,1960,p.168 sqq. (shorter version in: Trudy 25. meždunarodnogo kongressa vostokovedov, tom 3, Moskva 1963, p.507 sqq.); V. Gukasjan, "Opyt dešifrovki albanskix nadpisej Azerbajdžana", in: Izvestija AN Azerbajdžanskoj SSR, ser. lit., jaz. i isk., 2, 1969, p.73; W. Schulze, Die Sprache der Uden in Nord-Azerbajdžan, Wiesbaden 1982, p.284 sq. [back / zurück]

3.          Cp. the table in Šanidze, op.cit. (Vestnik ..), p.177 sq., where the lists were printed in the original, Armenian and Georgian characters. [back / zurück]

4.          Brosset's list is reprinted here in his own "French" transcription. [back / zurück]

5.          Cf., E.Dulaurier, Recherches sur la chronologie arménienne, t.1, Paris 1859, p. 167; his list was reproduced in K.P. Patkanov, Neskol`ko slov o nazvanijax drevnix armjanskix mesjacev, Sanktpeterburg 1871, p.42. Dulaurier had printed the list in Armenian characters and in a Latin transcription according to the West Armenian pronunciation. His readings are given after the Armenian version here. For an evaluation of Dulauriers notations cf., note 26., below. [back / zurück]

6.          Cf., the edition of A.G. Abrahamyan, Anania Širakac`u matenagrut`yunə, Yerevan 1944, p.118. [back / zurück]

7.          Cf., the same scholar`s edition, Hovhannes Imastaseri matenagrut`yunə, Yerevan 1956, p.75. [back / zurück]

8.          The last three mss. are quoted after Šanidze, op.cit., p.177 sq. ("H", "I", "K"). [back / zurück]

9.          Cf., M. Džanašvili, Opisanie rukopisej cerkovnago muzeja Duxovenstva Gruzinskoj Eparxii, kn. 3, Tiflis 1908, p.119. This list was neglected by Šanidze (l.cit.). In the last edition of Saba`s lexicon, the comparative table of month names is printed after the ms. "Ca" = Tbil. Q 400, which omits the "Albanian" list (Sulxan-Saba Orbeliani, Txzulebani ["Works"], t`. 4/2, ed. I. Abulaje, Tbilisi 1966, p.651sq.). [back / zurück]

10.          Cf., Šanidze, op.cit., p. 186. [back / zurück]

11.          Cf., Šanidze, op.cit., p.179. [back / zurück]

12.          Cf., Schulze, op.cit., p.284. [back / zurück]

13.          Cp. the rendering of the sixth Georgian month name, surc'q'n-isay in Armenian tradition where only one ms. has the initial <S-> while all others have <N-> (cf., my "Die altgeorgischen Monatsnamen", to appear in the Proceedings of the 3rd Caucasian Colloquium, Oslo 1988, 1.2.2.). [back / zurück]

14.          Cf., Ingoroq`va, op.cit., p.300 sq. [back / zurück]

15.          Cf., A. Schiefner, Versuch über die Sprache der Uden, Mémoires de l'Académie Imp. des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, 7e sér., 6/8,1863, p.94b. [back / zurück]

16.          Op.cit., p. 83a; other examples in V. Gukasjan, Udinsko-azerbajdžansko-russkij slovar', Baku 1974, p.260. [back / zurück]

17.          Cf., my "Monatsnamen", 3.6.3. - The fact that kt`oc` is not the second but the third month does not impair the comparison, for the "vintage" might well have extended over more than one month. Note that the Old Georgian word stueli underlying the month name stulisay denoted the "vintage" as well as the whole season of autumn. [back / zurück]

18.          Cf., Gukasjan, Slovar', p. 211 (my thanks are due to W. Schulze for this reference). For afere = afure `consecration' cf., the same dictionary, p.50, for the suffix -k'al ib., p.262; xaš is the normal word for the "moon" and the "month", cf., ib., p.220. The name matches with the popular Georgian designation of the October, ġvinobistve, which has to be interpreted as a "month of the wine festival"; cf., my "Monatsnamen", 3.4.2. [back / zurück]

19.          Cf., Schulze, op.cit., p.284. [back / zurück]

20.          Cf., Agayan, op.cit., p. 63. [back / zurück]

21.          Such forms could well be maintained in Armenian tradition because they reminded of the genitive plural forms in -oc` frequent in this language; maybe the namoc`n of the Paris ms. even has to be taken as a secondary variant with the Armenian "definite article." In Udi, -oy is the ending of the plural genitive only; cf., Schulze, op.cit., p.111. [back / zurück]

22.          Cf., note 13, above. [back / zurück]

23.          Cf., Agayan, op.cit., p. 62; Schulze, op.cit.,284. [back / zurück]

24.          Note that Brosset's Hile is nothing but the Modern Armenian rendering of <Yile>. Nevertheless, his notation lead to an etymological assumption of its own; cf., Ingoroq'va, op.cit., p.304, who thought of Udi xe `water'. [back / zurück]

25.          Cf., Schulze, op.cit., p.284. [back / zurück]

26.          The only problematical variant is Dulaurier's reading Bokavoh. As Brosset had read the expected Bokavon, we strongly suspect that Dulaurier's list was printed in Latin characters first, yielding such "natural" misprints as -h and -n, and that the parallel list in Armenian characters was retranscribed from the Latin. This explanation would account for some other divergences between Brosset's and Dulaurier's readings, too; cp., e.g., Bodjconé and Bdčkowe: <-o-/-d-> and <-oné/-oué>. [back / zurück]

27.          For bokovon (sic!) as a `month of the harvest' cf., Gukasjan, Opyt .., p.73. Agayan (l.cit.) proposed a meaning `intensively hot'; Schulze (l.cit.) considered boq'o `dough' and boq' `flower bud' beside boq'sun. [back / zurück]

28.          Cp. Schulze, op.cit., p. 111, who postulates a preform *-on for the normal Udi genitive plural ending, -oy. [back / zurück]

29.          Cp., e.g., Schmitt, this journal, 6, 1985, p.96, who does not decide between k`ał `billy goat', k`ałel `to gather in', and `anderen Wortfamilien'. [back / zurück]

30.          Patkanov (op.cit., p. 40) identified the Marē with the tenth months of Armenian and Georglan, mareri and mariali, for which see below. [back / zurück]

31.          The writing aw- might well represent an initial [o-] (in spite of the Georgian rendering av- which is a transliteration). The forms with B- could then have developed secondarily, due to an influence of Bokowon. - The "Georgian" variant with -b- instead of -č'- reflects a confusion of the Georgian (xucuri) letters in question, cf., Šanije, op.cit., p.178.38 [back / zurück]

32.          Cf., Łukasyan's dictionary, p. 114. [back / zurück]

33.          Cf., Brosset, Extrait .., p. 530. [back / zurück]

34.          Schulze (op.cit., p. 285) hesitatingly refers to Persian band `bond'. There is no evidence for this etymon yielding month names anywhere, however. [back / zurück]

35.          This would presuppose that the Georgian dissimilation of r-r to r-l would have manifested itself in the Albanian form, too. [back / zurück]

36.          This defect did not bother Brosset when identifying the three names. The internal -si- of the "Georgian" variants must be due to a misreading of the letter <ē> in the xucuri script, again. [back / zurück]

37.          Cf., Ingoroq'va, op.cit., p. 303, Agayan op.cit., p. 63 and others. [back / zurück]

38.          Cf., e.g., Dulaurier, op.cit., p. 11. [back / zurück]

39.          Cf., my "Monatsnamen", 3.3. - Ingoroq'va, l.cit., pointed to the popular Georgian name of the `July', mk'ata-tve which is still being used today; cf., K. Tschenkeli, Georgisch-Deutsches Wörterbuch 1, Zürich 1965, p.785. The word mk'a- means `mowing', too. [back / zurück]

40.          Cf., Łukasyan's dictionary, p. 123; xaš is the word for `month', again. [back / zurück]

41.          Cf., Agayan, l.cit.; Gukasjan, Opyt . ., p.73. [back / zurück]

42.          Cf., Ingoroq'va, op.cit., p.303; Schulze, op.cit., p.285. [back / zurück]

43.          For the justification of areg as an archaic genative of arew cf., H. Eichner, "Die urindogermanische Wurzel *H2reu `hell machen'", Die Sprache 24, 1978, p.147. [back / zurück]

44.          Cf., e.g., V. Grumel, La chronologie (Traité d'études byzantines, 1), Paris 1958, p.142 and p.245 sqq. (tables). [back / zurück]

45.          Cf., my "Monatsnamen", 2.2.3. [back / zurück]

46.          Cf., pp.160 to 183 of Abrahamyan's edition. [back / zurück]

47.          All in all, it was seven "nations" according to Hovhannes that shared the "Egyptian" style, viz. the Egyptians themselves, the Ethiopians, the Athenians, the Bithynians, the Cappadocians, the Georgians, and the Albanians. Cf., the edition, l.cit. and p.80 (table). [back / zurück]

48.          Note that even the tables printed in the edition are taken from a fifteenth century manuscript (Yerevan Matenadaran 2068; cf., p. 184). The information can, however, be traced to Anania Širakac`i at least, if the "concordance" quoted by Brosset from the Paris ms. (cf., 3) was based upon synchrony, too. [back / zurück]

49.          Cf., a previous part of this article (on Armenian hor̂i and sahmi), to appear in the Journal of the Society for the Study of Caucasia, 1,1988), ch.1. sqq. [back / zurück]

50.          Cf. ib., ch. 1.1. [back / zurück]

51.          There is no reason to assume that the 6th of August should have been identical with the first day of the Georgian month axalc'lisay in Christian times as K'. K'ek'elije concluded ("Jveli kartuli c'elic'adi", in: "Et'iudebi jveli kartuli lit'erat'uris ist'oriidan 1, 1956, p. 113 sqq.). Here we cannot deal with the question whether the "Transfiguration Day" may have been introduced by the Eastern Christians as a substitute for the Persian New Year festival itself. For a survey of the problems involved cf., Taqizadeh, BSOAS 10, 1939-42, p.632 sqq. [back / zurück]

52.          Note that in 353 AD, there was an important reformation of the cycle of Easter calculation which led to the constitution of the Armenian "Great Era" in 552 (cf., Grumel, op.cit., p. 140). Maybe the proposed substitution is connected with this reformation. [back / zurück]

Achtung: Dieser Text ist mit Unicode / UTF8 kodiert. Um die in ihm erscheinenden Sonderzeichen auf Bildschirm und Drucker sichtbar zu machen, muß ein Font installiert sein, der Unicode abdeckt wie z.B. der TITUS-Font Titus Cyberbit Unicode. Attention: This text is encoded using Unicode / UTF8. The special characters as contained in it can only be displayed and printed by installing a font that covers Unicode such as the TITUS font Titus Cyberbit Unicode.

Copyright Jost Gippert, Frankfurt a/M 13. 8.2001. No parts of this document may be republished in any form without prior permission by the copyright holder.